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org-babel funtions for C# evaluation based on Eric Schultes ob-java.el dont blame Eric for any harm this might cause, he has nothing to do with ob-csharp.el!

;;; ob-csharp.el --- org-babel functions for csharp evaluation

;; Copyright (C) 2011-2015 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

;; Original Author: Eric Schulte (ob-java.el) 
;; Author: thomas "at" friendlyvillagers.com 
;; Keywords: literate programming, reproducible research
;; Homepage: http://orgmode.org

;; This file is NOT YET part of GNU Emacs.

;; GNU Emacs is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
;; it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
;; the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
;; (at your option) any later version.

;; GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
;; but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;; GNU General Public License for more details.

;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
;; along with GNU Emacs.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

;;; Commentary:

;; Currently this only supports the external compilation and execution
;; of csharp code blocks (i.e., no session support).

;;; Code:
(require 'ob)

(defvar org-babel-tangle-lang-exts)
(add-to-list 'org-babel-tangle-lang-exts '("csharp" . "cs"))

(defcustom org-babel-csharp-command "mono"
  "Name of the csharp command.
May be either a command in the path, like mono
or an absolute path name, like /usr/local/bin/mono
parameters may be used, like mono -verbose"
  :group 'org-babel
  :version "24.3"
  :type 'string)

(defcustom org-babel-csharp-compiler "gmcs"
  "Name of the csharp compiler.
May be either a command in the path, like mcs
or an absolute path name, like /usr/local/bin/mcs
parameters may be used, like mcs -warnaserror+"
  :group 'org-babel
  :version "24.3"
  :type 'string) 

(defun org-babel-execute:csharp (body params)
  (let* ((full-body (org-babel-expand-body:generic body params))
         (cmpflag (or (cdr (assoc :cmpflag params)) ""))
         (cmdline (or (cdr (assoc :cmdline params)) ""))
         (src-file (org-babel-temp-file "csharp-src-" ".cs"))
         (exe-file (concat (file-name-sans-extension src-file)  ".exe"))
          (progn (with-temp-file  src-file (insert full-body))
                  (concat org-babel-csharp-compiler " " cmpflag " "  src-file) ""))))
    (let ((results (org-babel-eval (concat org-babel-csharp-command " " cmdline " " exe-file) "")))
       (org-babel-result-cond (cdr (assoc :result-params params))
         (org-babel-read results)
         (let ((tmp-file (org-babel-temp-file "c-")))
           (with-temp-file tmp-file (insert results))
           (org-babel-import-elisp-from-file tmp-file)))
        (cdr (assoc :colname-names params)) (cdr (assoc :colnames params)))
        (cdr (assoc :rowname-names params)) (cdr (assoc :rownames params)))))))

(defun org-babel-prep-session:csharp (session params)
  "Return an error because csharp does not support sessions."
  (error "Sessions are not (yet) supported for CSharp"))

(provide 'ob-csharp)
;;; ob-csharp.el ends here

Put this file into your orgmode-folder (i. e. .emacs.d/elpa/org-20XXXXXX).

In your .emacs-file add csharp to the list of babel languages, i. e.:

(org-babel-do-load-languages 'org-babel-load-languages '((csharp . t)))


Hello World

class HelloWorld {
  public static void Main()
    System.Console.WriteLine("Hello World!");

Hello World!


class Table {
  public static void Main()
    for (char  c = 'a'; c < 'd'; c++)
      System.Console.Write("{0} ",c);
    for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++)
      System.Console.Write("{0} ",i);
a b c
0 1 2

Compiler flags and command line args

public class TestFlags {
  public static void Main()
   int i;  // unused; throw compile time error
   System.Console.WriteLine("You won't see this!");

public class TestCmd {
  public static void Main()
   System.Console.WriteLine("You won't see this!");

Mono JIT compiler version 3.2.8 (Debian 3.2.8+dfsg-10)
Copyright (C) 2002-2014 Novell, Inc, Xamarin Inc and Contributors. www.mono-project.com
        TLS:           __thread
        SIGSEGV:       altstack
        Notifications: epoll
        Architecture:  amd64
        Disabled:      none
        Misc:          softdebug 
        LLVM:          supported, not enabled.
        GC:            sgen

public class TestForms {
  public static void Main()
    System.Windows.Forms.MessageBox.Show("Hello Messagebox", "Hello");